Principles Of Health And Social Care


The concept of health care includes social, institutional and regulatory functions. Health care services are the activities of society, its representatives, institutions and organisations that include medical and health care activities. Thus, this essay aims to discuss the principles of support provided in health and social care areas, as well as in detail review the policy, legislation, regulations and code of practice present in the United Kingdom. Additionally, the paper will review the theories of health and social care practices aimed at the analysis of social processes that have impact on users of health and social care services, as well as evaluate the effectiveness on inter professional working. A detailed review of the processes of development and implementation of health and social care organisational policy will help to provide effective recommendations for the improvement of each social worker’s personal contributions to meeting good practice requirements. 


Task 1. Principles of Support

1.1 Principles of Support Applied to Ensure That the Individuals Are Cared in the Health and Social Practice

The support present in health and social care includes a system of activities that have the purpose of the fast and complete recovery of health of people with disabilities, as well as their return to active life and socially useful work. This process is also referred to as rehabilitation. It is a complex system of governmental, medical, psychological, social, economic, educational, industrial, household and other activities. 

Medical rehabilitation aims at complete or partial recovery, compensation for an impaired or lost function, or slowing of the progression of the disease. All other forms of rehabilitation are considered to be medical (Linsley, Kane & Owen 2011). 

What concerns about Ms. Sharma who has physical disabilities, needs support with day-to-day tasks and complains about loneliness and isolation, it is possible to outline several principles, which stem from the forms of rehabilitation and its functions. Thus, the staff members who visit her must provide an impact on Ms. Sharma’s mental development so as to overcome the ideas of uselessness of the treatment, isolation and loneliness. Educational rehabilitation prepares patients for a variety of activities available to them. It also creates confidence that the acquired knowledge will be useful in subsequent employment in a particular area. Additionally, social care is aimed at supporting patients with confidence that the patient is a useful member of society. The principle of vocational rehabilitation involves training or retraining for an available form of work, provisioning the patient with the necessary technical devices to facilitate the use of work tools, adaptation of a disabled person’s workplace to his/her functionality, etc.

1.2 Methodology for Protecting Customers, Patients and Staff from Harm

In order to support customers, patients and staff from harm, a social worker must ensure their protection from discomfort, pain, danger or damage, as well as adhere to confidentiality requirements in the process of communication. Thus, social workers must comply with the following procedures. Firstly, they ought to promote the formulation and application of social policies that ensure wellbeing, as well as prevent the use of personal knowledge, skills and experience for inhumane purposes. Secondly, it is necessary to respect the identity of the client and to guarantee the protection of his dignity and rights regardless of his origin, status, gender, age and contribution to social development. Thirdly, it is important to promote the empowerment of the client and the development of the client’s ability to make decisions independently. Fourthly, it is advisable not to deny helping a patient, even if he/she must be defended from others, or to admit a patient’s inability to help himself. Fifthly, it is important to recognise the priority of professional responsibility over the personal interests. After all, it is each patient’s right to be protected by the National Health Service policy in the United Kingdom (Marshall & World Health Organization 2007). 

1.3 Benefits of Using a Person-Centred Approach to Promote Ms. Sharma’s Wellbeing

A person-centred approach postulates every human being’s tendency to grow, develop and realise his full potential. Thus, this approach entails a constructive direction of a person’s complete development and the desire to free this movement. 

It is believed that the benefits of this approach are explained by its main provisions. Firstly, the inner nature or essence of a human being is positive, constructive and social. Secondly, this nature begins to discover and manifest itself in a person every time when there is positive atmosphere of unconditional acceptance, empathic understanding and congruent self-presentation in the relationships with another person or persons (Linsley, Kane & Owen 2011). 

Considering three conditions that create the climate of growth and development, which are authenticity, sincerity and congruence, the staff members themselves are in a certain relationship with Ms. Sharma, the focus of which is to promote her wellbeing. It helps her move forward in a constructive way. With the creation of a climate that is conducive to a change, Ms. Sharma opens herself to the staff members. At the same time, they allow a positive, non-judgmental, and accepting change to occur in relation to the client no matter where she currently is. This step has therapeutic advantage in the communication process. With empathic understanding, staff members accurately sense feelings and personal experiences of the patient and transmit the perceived understanding of the client. 

1.4 Ethical Dilemmas and Conflicts Faced by the Care Workers

There are many dilemmas and conflicts social workers may face during their practice. Paternalism and self-determination are two of them. The problem of paternalism is actualised by one of the core values of social work, which is the welfare of the client. Paternalism considers it possible to limit self-destructive actions of a client, oblige him to take service against his will or by force, and recognises the right of a social worker to withhold information or provide misinformation in the interest of the client so as to protect him from himself. This ethical dilemma relates to patients’ self-determination and their ability to understand their positions and make right decisions. 

The need to tell the truth is another ethical dilemma. It is related to the previously discussed issue, while the legal right of customers to obtain reliable information about their conditions and well-being is not questioned. It is believed that the doctor has no right to deny patients the accurate information or provide misinformation. On the other hand, it is ethically justified and sometimes even necessary to conceal the truth from customers or use disinformation for their own good. 

Confidentiality and privacy are also some of the most important dilemmas in the health and social care practice. A social worker must keep received information strictly confidential, while respecting the personality and dignity of a customer. The information used in such case must not be utilized for other purposes without the appropriate agreement. As a matter of fact, sometimes social workers are forced to consider the possibility of disclosure of confidential information, such as when facing the threat from the client or a third party. Hence, there is the need to inform the customer about the limits of confidentiality in a particular situation and obtain the consent of the client at the same time. For instance, it can be a record of the conversation or participation of a third party (Marshall & World Health Organization 2007). 

Task 2. Impact of Course of Actions, Legislative Activity, Control and Code of Practical Training

2.1 Course of Actions, Legislative Activity, Control and Codes of Practical Training that Are Relevant to the Work in Health and Social Care

The basic principles of the code of ethics of the Association of Social Workers in the UK are the following. Firstly, the recognition of the value and dignity of every person, regardless of origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion and contribution to social development is central to social work in the UK. Secondly, social work aims to improve the lives of people by creating favourable conditions for clients and warnings about difficulties and suffering. Thirdly, a social worker is obliged to carry out the tasks honestly and skilfully. Fourthly, a social worker has the right and the duty to draw attention of authorities and the general public to the work of government, society or agencies, which create and strengthen the difficulties and sufferings or oppose relief. 

The National Health Service is an internationally recognised institution which aims at high quality health care and its absolute affordability to the entire population in order to provide a dynamic response to the changes in British laws and societies. Strategic Health Authorities are responsible for specific regions ensuring the integration of national development priorities. The modern UK law is guided by the Health and Social Care Act of 2012, which proclaims policies for all the organisations and institutions in the area (Kozier 2008). 

2.2 Evolution of Regional Strategies and Procedures in Accordance with State Strategies

The connection and cooperation of regional strategies and procedures to state specifications is performed with the help of the following features in the UK. First and foremost is the existence of a huge free-thinking element in social policy. Second priority is the social role of municipalities of maintaining a huge impact of a district on the social protection. Third is the singular place of charitable and non-profit organisations in the provision of social assistance and support. 

Such market mechanisms as paid services or private social work agencies are actively used as the social services in the UK. A differentiated payment depends on the place or residence and the means by which a person who needs the service is being delivered it (Harrington & Estes 2008).

2.3 Impact of Course of Actions, Legislative Activity, Control and Codes of Practical Training on Organisational Policy and Practice

The establishment, implementation and development of the UK policies, legislation, regulations and codes of practice have a huge impact on the organisational policy and practice of health and social care. The current system makes sure that patients and practitioners are under the protection of the government so as to provide the practitioners with the conductive environment and ensure patients of the qualified service (Kozier 2008). 

Task 3. Theoretical Inference of Health and Social Care Operating Procedures

3.1 Theories that Sustain Health and Social Care Operating Procedures

Humane social learning approaches, as well as the anti-totalitarian and anti-discriminative approaches, sustain the UK health and social care practices. The system has been developing for many years and has earned the right to be called one of the best health care systems in the world. 

From the standpoints of humanity and morality, social service is focused on the key elements of the values that have been retained with minor changes in the course of history, which are well-being, social justice and dignity. The UK public medical practice outlines several issues that exist in the hands-on approach. They include dependence of the value base of social service on the mission, goals and objectives, as well as the evolution of ethical rules and moral challenges of vocational duties of a social worker. The problem of the value base in social work is directly related to its humanistic essence, as any identity serves a core value regardless of the specific objectives of a particular model of social assistance. Therefore, the approach to life of each individual as the supreme value dimension is complicated by the understanding of the fact that this very life should be worthy. Everyone has the right to the assistance of the subject of social work without discrimination on any grounds. Humanistic guidelines encourage the subjects of social work to interact with clients, encourage them to cooperate, but not to the detriment of others. Thus, a humanistic foundation is generally the basis for all the professional activity in the area. 

The social learning theory considers not only the process of socialisation itself, but also its reasons. This theory is also one of the bases of the UK health and social care system. It especially related to the satisfaction of the biological needs of a mother and a child, the reinforcement of social behaviour, the simulation of behaviour of strong personalities and similar impacts of the external environment. 

The anti-totalitarian and anti-discriminative approaches pay much attention to the fight against the discrimination and other forms of violence in the UK. In practice, the selection of cultural aspects presents certain difficulties. Culture can include a relatively unchanged dominant set of social values and assume that they will be adopted by the members of a certain group. However, the UK health and social care system ensures the provision of the sources of influence to any individual as well as social and ethnic group (Basford & Slevin 2003). 

3.2 Analysis of the Social Processes’ Impact on Users of Health and Social Care Services

A liberal component occupies an important place in the UK social policy. First of all, it is reflected in the weight of social services of existing private agencies, a limited role of government reflected in a restrictive policy of the labour market, and an active involvement of business in social security and employment. The cost of services varies in different counties. Customers must submit income documents in a timely manner so as to pay less for social services. 

The number of private social services and agencies serving seniors and disabled people has been increasing. England is distinguished by a high proportion of services provided by private social agencies. Thus, about half of social assistance agencies that provide support at home are financed by government and municipalities, while the second half of services comes from private social agencies (Clouston & Westcott 2005). 

The liberal character of the British system of social service is manifested in the absence of uniform state standards. Their quality and quantity is only stipulated at the local level. For example, a certain situation can put a lonely senior of one county into a less comfortable position than the same person from a different administrative-territorial formation of the country. 

3.3 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Inter Professional Working

According to the British Association of Social Workers, social work is a responsible professional activity that helps people and communities to set or determine personal, social and situational difficulties that affect them. Social work helps to overcome these difficulties through support, protection, compensation and rehabilitation. 

The UK National Health Service provides measures to evaluate the effectiveness of professionals in the social work. It is based on both general and specific criteria. General criteria include the assessment of the overall effectiveness, such as on the scale of territorial social services or separate social service agencies in a particular area. Specific criteria, on the other hand, are aimed at assessing basic social services, forms and methods of social work in relation to different classes of the population. 

The effectiveness of social work in the United Kingdom is based on certain principles. Firstly, the ability to accurately formulate the problem for a client is vital. Secondly, the analysis of factors that have caused the problem as well as prevented or enabled the solution has to be clear. Thirdly, the evaluation of the solvability of the problem has to be timely. Fourthly, the development of an action plan is necessary. Fifthly, it is necessary to involve a client into the resolution of the problem. Lastly, the assessment of changes made to a client’s position is vital (Cournoyer 2011). 

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Task 4. Evolution and Embodiment of Health and Social Care Organisational Limits

4.1 Individual Aim, Functions, Accountabilities and Duties in the Context of Working with Those within and Outside the Health and Social Care Workplace

Personal roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and duties of a social worker are diverse and interconnected among each other. Thus, a social worker constantly interacts with a large number of information sources. This data is not limited to one specific industry, but it is related to many of them. Thus, a social worker is familiar with many legal, economic, medical, social and educational questions. 

The social worker possesses professional knowledge in psychology, sociology, psychiatry and law, as he has to be familiar with the legal aspects of social protection, theory of social work, etc. At the same time, the social worker establishes the reasons for the difficulties of the patients or conflicting situations at the place of work, study and other places. Such a worker helps solve existing problems related to employment or social protection. Moreover, he/she facilitates the integration of the activities of different institutions that provide the necessary economic and social assistance to the population, as well as offers psychological, pedagogical and legal advice related to different social problems.  

A variety of professional requirements towards social workers is derived from its many functions, which include diagnostic, prognostic, human rights, organisational, preventive, social, medical, technological, educational, social and communicative actions. 

The first responsibility is to study the characteristics of the family, a group of relatives, the degree and direction of exposure to the micro-environment and setting an appropriate diagnosis. The development of events, processes and social patterns of behaviour is projected with the help of this point of view. A social worker contributes to the organisation of social services in enterprises and communities, attracts publicity to the work, as well as directs the activities by providing various types of assistance and social services to the population (Buchbinder & Thompson 2010). 

4.2 Evaluation of Personal Contributions to the Evolution and Embodiment of Health and Social Care Organisational Policy

There are several ways to assess personal contributions of social workers to the development and implementation of health and social care policy in the UK. Firstly, the ability to promote various forms of services at home and in temporary care houses would allow people to feel safer at their homes whenever self-help is reasonable and achievable. Secondly, the ability to ensure that practical support of patients is a top priority for the organisers of social and health services is vital. Thirdly, the ability to ensure the roper assessment of needs and good management for each patient is a cornerstone of a high-quality care. Fourthly, it is necessary to promote a thriving independent private sector side-by-side with the high-quality care carried out by the public sector. Fifthly, it is vital to clarify the responsibilities of various institutions and, therefore, define the accountability of their activities. All of these actions are supported by the UK legislation in regards to health and social care (Nolan, Marsden & Winn 2005). 

4.3 Recommendations for the Evolutions of Personal Contributions to Meeting Good Practice Requirements 

Based on the above information, it is possible to provide the following recommendations for the development of personal contributions of social workers aimed at meeting good practice requirements. 

Such volitional qualities as discipline, attentiveness, understanding, patience, self-control, etc. are required for the development of a social worker’s personal contribution. Performance cannot be effective without these leading characteristics. As the profession is gradually becoming harder, it is also becoming more socially significant, and, thus, it requires more personal input from the experts. Thus, the complete evaluation of the image of a social worker is recommended, as it plays a significant role in working with people and showcasing professional values. Additionally, a person who is involved in communication with a patient must possess such features as self-control, self-criticism, fair self-assessments, as well as demonstrate stress-proof qualities and the ability to ignore personal emotions. Moreover, it is also recommended to monitor a social worker’s ability to communicate with patients, paying special attention to empathy and eloquence. A continuous assessment of such qualities is aimed at the improvement of social worker’s personal characteristics and, therefore, the ability to maintain good practice (Thomas, Mason & Ford 2003). 


Social work is a phenomenon of civilised society, which is constantly developing in all areas. It has been established as a scientific and educational discipline. This discipline has its object, subject, categorical and conceptual apparatus, patters, methods and principles. Moreover, social work possesses its own technology and innovative approaches. The studies in social work are carried out at the university level in the United Kingdom. A large part of social workers is employed by the local authorities. Nevertheless, more and more services for seniors and disabled people have been provided by private specialists. As a result, local authorities are forced to buy these private services by suing, for example, their methods of management in specific cases. The legislative framework in the UK health and social care encourages this kinds of development. What is more, it encourages social workers to development their personal features so as to provide patients with better services.

Jul 11, 2019 in Socioligy
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