Feminism can be defined as social movements, ideologies or political movements with a primary interest in setting, achieving as well as establishing equal economic, personal, social and political rights of women. Scholars over time have defined feminism as an ideology and movement that form alliances to expose tension locally and globally alongside the universal sisterhood so as to achieve a unified and humane world. Before feminism, women were not consciously aware of experience and it relevance in intellectual work since it was a mans world. Mostly women remained invisible and were part of the story of the male. By then, Feminist and feminism as terms were not widely known but the feminist movement had already been employed in different films thus it was popular. It is from that movement that feminism theory emerged and manifested various geography, history as well as literary criticism. With time women began agitating for change in politics, churches, and in social expectations.
Western feminism started as a universality belief in the west and was connected to French revolution where women wanted to be treated as fully-pledged citizens. In contrast to western feminism, transnational or global feminism began in post-colonial periods and was concerned with global sisterhood when addressing gender equality. Western feminism emphasizes on referent community color and hegemonic discourse, unlike transnational feminism that had central components on anti-globalisation and anti-capitalism. Unlike western feminism, transnational feminism required caution when addressing fellow women. The feminism of the West only endorsed the right of voting for white women but not for the black women.
On the contrary, transnational feminism supported capitalism and globalization affecting women across races, nations and classes. Western feminism endorsed the idea that the people from diverse nations had same gender equality experiences and subjectivities while transnational feminism greatly rejected the ideology. Global feminism recognized that women across the global suffered similar exploitations and inequalities around which women could seek collaboration and find solidarity.
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Western feminism had not understood the differences in the history of black women oppression and the United States white women abuse. Hooks argues that western feminists claimed to win anti-racism, but they had not succeeded to fight racism. On the contrary, they had spread racial hierarchy. The abolitionist of the West struggled to end slavery immorality but not the ideology of racism that upheld slavery.
Intersectionality being a concept used to describe ways that oppression interconnects and cannot be examined independently, assisted greatly in understanding women experiences. Intersectionality enlightens inclusive feminism that tries to find out the most significant differences amongst women that outline their lives. The intersectionality issues of class and race with gender issues involve effective redressing of one necessity and as a result, all issues would be redressed. Moreover, intersectionality describes equally constructing the interweaving line. For instance, if feminism is meant to end oppression in sexist then the first step would be to understand women as well as the experiences in oppression, by so doing it would involve recognizing intersectionality how the experiences are diverse.
Female ethics supports that women criteria for morality as well as standard are different for men and women. Some philosophers said women qualities are liabilities for men. For instance in the film Where Do We Go Now, women from Lebanese village conspired to bring peace since men had made enmity among Christians and Muslims due to influence from outside sources and televisions. The difference between men and women is seen since men are bred to defend people and as warriors while women bring peace.
In the Middle East, feminism is a movement among Muslims women that started when Muslims acquired literacy in Islamic matters and studied the original sources of Islam as well as interpretive issues. By then, men believed that educating women caused discounted and were useless. In Muslim, women should wear veils since they believe it is an obligation from God. So many Islamic scholars made hijab mandatory for all women and countries like Qatar and Saudi Arabia enforced it as a dress code. For the feminist movement, they believe that covering their body should be a choice. In many Middle East countries, many women who do take part in feminism movement are branded a terrorist. The Middle East is depicted as a dangerous place but tantalizing for women. Women in the Middle East are described as Orient or in other words a place of remarkable experience and wisdom. From the film, Where Do We Go Now, peace would easily reign if women ruled the countries. Although the Middle East is dangerous, it is also a place of escapades, especially for women. This ascertains that world is made up of unequal halves that are primarily oriented and occident.
Samuel Huntington clash for civilization theory was a mode of organizing the world. Civilization theory refers to an idea of urban stratification of a society, form of symbolic communication as well as urban development but separated from natural environment by the cultural elite. The theory claims that civilization was spread through religious conversion, invasion as well as colonization. Sen Amartya questions the clash of civilization notion from a different perspective. Sen questions if a group of people can be identified as a civilization or is animosity has to be on difference basis as well as if characteristics identification of Islamic or Western civilization can be defended. Sen argument is that each person has many commitment and identities that make a persuasive case for diverse people to coexisting peacefully.
According to Martin Luther King Jr, the greatest need of civilization is moral progress and not in the material good multiplicity. Luther also believed that love is the answer to many problems that people face and by loving the society can transform society in a way that enhances civilization. According to Herbert Langfield, by successfully measuring the intelligence, the major problems associated with civilization will be solved. On the other hand, Juergensmeyer believes that the reason for contemporary world experiencing religion rebellion is as a result of civilization and accommodation of radical beliefs. The feminist movement aspires to address full equality for Muslims such as women rights, social justice as well as gender equality. Antimodernism, a movement that opposed modernism do not seek to change their habits as well as dress code. This tradition is difficult to understand since women in anti-modernism do not revolt against Islamic traditions that seem oppressive. The term anti-modernity represents a way of life and conscious mind. However in the world today ant modernity is often referred to fundamentalism with more Islamic militia and rebellious Christianity
Feminist scholarships on women in political as well as the social movement have contributed to campaigns against Sharia aspect. Feminist believe that Sharia law is oppressive since that is not based on Islam. For instance, in sharia law, men should head the family. Many Islamic feminists have objected the Muslim person laws since the laws discriminate against women. As a result, the scholars have developed Muslim personal legislation that are woman friendly. The dress code is another issue that researchers are expected to address. Many feminist believe that the veil is a visible sign of women subjugation, and therefore, it should not be worn publicly. However, there is a strong opposition regarding veil since most Muslims see it as a sign of freedom. Another contribution of scholarship is the issue of equality in mosques. Feminists began advocating for women to pray besides men without partition just as they do in Mecca. They argue that the barriers are more manmade rules than godly. Other issues that scholarships have contributed towards Islam women are equality in leading prayers. Feminists believe that women should not be deterred from leading salat in a mixed congregation.
There are various ways that indigenous community and the Middle East are represented. For instance, Saudi Arabia has tight restriction on women where women can only give medical care. The oppressed and subservient Muslim woman cannot walk alone lest they are detained and accused of a moral offense. This depicts a high form of discrimination. For instance from the film, Where Do We Go Now, women dresses in black and they plot a trick to make men live in peace with others from Christian religion. In this case, women are meant to manipulate men since they could not give advice to them to stop fighting as they were considered inferior being. Mostly, Muslim women are seen as noble salvage since patriarchal rules govern most of the Middle East countries. Women dignity is not recognized and for the same reason the few feminist that liberal are seen as radical or in worst case scenario, terrorist.